What does pN1a mean in breast cancer?
pN1a means that cancer cells have spread (metastasised) into 1 to 3 lymph nodes and at least one is larger than 2mm. pN1b means there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes behind the breastbone (the internal mammary nodes) found with a sentinel node biopsy.
What does T in TNM stand for?
A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).
What does NX mean in cancer staging?
NX: Cancer in nearby lymph nodes cannot be measured. N0: There is no cancer in nearby lymph nodes. N1, N2, N3: Refers to the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer.
What size is a T3 tumor?
T3: Tumor is more than 5 cm across. T4 (includes T4a, T4b, T4c, and T4d): Tumor of any size growing into the chest wall or skin. This includes inflammatory breast cancer.
Is Stage 1b breast cancer curable?
Stage 1 is highly treatable, however, it does require treatment, typically surgery and often radiation, or a combination of the two. Additionally, you may consider hormone therapy, depending on the type of cancer cells found and your additional risk factors.
What is Y in TNM staging?
y: stage assessed after chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy; in other words, the individual had neoadjuvant therapy. r: stage for a recurrent tumor in an individual that had some period of time free from the disease.
What is N2 in cancer staging?
N2: Cancer has spread to 1 or more lymph nodes on either side of the body, and none is larger than 6 cm. N3: The cancer is found in a lymph node and is larger than 6 cm.
Does Stage 1B breast cancer need chemo?
Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is not usually offered for stage 1 breast tumours. It may be offered after surgery (called adjuvant therapy) for these tumours if there is a high risk that the cancer will come back (recur).
What does M1A melanoma mean?
Metastasis (M) M1 means the cancer has spread to another part of the body. M1 is split into M1a, M1b and M1c. M1a means there are melanoma cells in the skin in other parts of the body or in lymph nodes far away from where the melanoma started growing.
What is melanoma T1 in situ?
This stage is also known as melanoma in situ. The tumor is no more than 2mm (2/25 of an inch) thick and might or might not be ulcerated (T1 or T2a). The cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant parts of the body (M0)
What is Stage 1 melanoma?
In Stage I melanoma, the cancer cells are in both the first and second layers of the skin —the epidermis and the dermis. A melanoma tumor is considered Stage I if it is up to 2 mm thick, and it may or may not have ulceration.
What is the difference between N1a and M0 cancer?
The cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes (N0) or to distant parts of the body (M0). The tumor is no more than 2 mm thick and might or might not be ulcerated (T1 or T2a). The cancer has spread to 1 to 3 nearby lymph nodes, but it is so small that it is only seen under the microscope (N1a or N2a).