What is ionotropic gelation technique?
Ionotropic gelation is based on the capability of polyelectrolytes to traverse link in the presence of counter ions to form nanoparticles (Giri et al., 2013d). In the ionic gelation method, chitosan polysaccharide is dissolved in aqueous acidic solution to get the cation of chitosan.
What is gelation method?
Gelation can be defined as the formation of a three-dimensional network by chemical or physical cross-linking. Chemical cross-linking, the covalent bonding of polymer chains by means of a chemical reaction, will not be considered here.
What is the difference between gelation and gelatinization?
Gelatinization is the process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds between starch molecules, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites to engage more water molecules. Gelation, on the other hand, is the process of formation of a gel from a system with polymers.
What are the methods for preparation of gel?
A gel is prepared by mixing a suitable thickening agent with an aqueous vehicle. The drug is dissolved in an aqueous vehicle and the thickening is added by triturating in a mortar. The trituration is carried out until a homogenous preparation is formed.
How do you synthesis a chitosan?
Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: The amount of 500 mg of chitosan (medium molecular weight and 85% deacetylated, Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, USA) was dissolved in 50 ml of 1% acetic acid solution and stirred at 1000 rpm for 25 min at room temperature until the solution became clear.
Why is gelatinization important?
Gelatinization improves the availability of starch for amylase hydrolysis. So gelatinization of starch is used constantly in cooking to make the starch digestible or to thicken/bind water in roux, sauce, or soup.
What is gel pharmaceutical industry?
Definition: A gel is a solid or semisolid system of at least two constituents, consisting of a condensed mass enclosing and interpenetrated by a liquid4. Advantages5,6,7: Gels are used to achieve optimal cutaneous and percutaneous drug delivery.
What are the different gelling agents?
The important gums that find application in food as gelling agents include alginate, pectin, carrageenan, gellan, gelatin, agar, modified starch, methyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. The gel characteristics of some of the important gelling agents are summarized in Table 2 (Williams 2006).
How do you convert nanoparticles to chitosan?
Chitosan is added to an aqueous acidic solution (acetic acid solution in general), and then the aqueous solution of TPP is added under vigorous stirring. Anionic molecules diffuse into the mixture of positively-charged chitosan molecules and crosslinking occurs leading to nanoparticle formation.
How do chitosan nanoparticles synthesis?
What is the difference between Agar and alginate?
Agar is a jelly-like material produced from red algae while alginate is the conjugate base of alginic acid. The key difference between agar and alginate is that agar is obtained from red algae, whereas alginate is obtained from brown algae.
What is the difference between sodium alginate and agar agar?
Sodium alginate, is salt that has been extracted from the walls of brown algae cells. It is a structural component of the algae that allows it to be more flexible. Unlike agar-agar, the gelling that occurs with sodium alginate happens only in cold conditions.
What is alginate gelation?
ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. The application of hydrocolloid gel particles is potentially useful in food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Alginate gel particles are one of the more commonly used hydrocolloid gel particles due to them being biocompatible, nontoxic, biodegradable, cheap, and simple to produce.
What are the applications of Ionotropic gelation in biotechnology?
Given the ability to produce biocompatible materials, ionotropic gelation has been extensively developed in the biomedical field for the synthesis of gel beads, nanoparticles, micro/nanogels, and fibers    .
What is Ionotropic gelation (polyelectrolyte complexation)?
The technique proposed is based on principle of Ionotropic gelation (polyelectrolyte complexation). This technique involves interaction of a cation (or an anion) with an ionic polymer to generate a highly cross linked structure. The ability of such highly cross linked structure to sustain the drug release is exploited in this method.
Can ionic gelation be used to produce CS nanoparticles?
Superior gelling characteristic of CS, due to its polycationic nature, is achieved in the presence of anionic substances. The ionic gelation method with the aid of mechanized stirring or ultrasound has been popularly used to produce CS nanoparticles (CSNPs) of various sizes (84-600 nm) with an encapsulation efficiency of 23-97%.
How to generate hydrogel beads using Ionotropic gelation?
There are two methods by which hydrogel beads can be generated using ionotropic gelation technique. These methods differ from each other in the source of the cross linking ion. In one of the methods, the cross linker ion is positioned externally shown in Fig 2.