What are the levels of axillary lymph nodes?
There are three surgical levels of axillary lymph nodes:
- level I: below the lower edge of the pectoralis minor muscle.
- level II: underneath/posterior the pectoralis minor muscle.
- level III: above/medial the pectoralis minor muscle.
What is axillary level?
Anatomically, axillary lymph nodes are divided into three levels, with the pectoralis minor muscle as the boundary. The lymph nodes located laterally to the pectoralis minor muscle are level I axillary nodes, which include the lateral breast group, the central group, and the subscapular group.
What is the normal size of axilla lymph nodes?
Classically, benign axillary lymph nodes typically are smaller than 2 cm in maximal size and have a hilar radiolucent notch. Increased size and/or increased density of a node on mammography raises concern for pathology.
What is a level 2 axillary node?
Levels of axillary lymph nodes include: Level I — nodes located below the lower edge of the pectoralis minor muscle. Level II — axillary lymph nodes located underneath the pectoralis minor muscle. Level III — nodes are located above the pectoralis minor muscle.
What is Level 3 axillary clearance?
Anatomically, the axillary space is divided into three levels by the pectoralis minor muscle. The dissection of level III ALNs, located between the costoclavicular ligament of Halsted and the medial border of pectoralis minor, is associated with a slightly longer surgical time and associated morbidity.
What is level 2 axillary clearance?
Level II – This level of dissection removes affected tissues in the middle part of the pectoralis minor muscle. Level III – This level involves the most aggressive dissection of the three and removes all the lymph nodes from the axilla.
What is an abnormal size for a lymph node?
In general, lymph nodes greater than 1 cm in diameter are considered to be abnormal. Supraclavicular nodes are the most worrisome for malignancy.
How are lymphatic vessels connected to the axilla?
Routes through or between the pectoral muscles may lead directly to the apical nodes of the axilla. Lymphatics follow the blood vessels through the pectoralis major and enter the parasternal (internal thoracic) nodes. Connections may lead across the median plane and hence to the contralateral breast.
What are the symptoms of axillary lymphadenopathy?
Symptoms Axillary lymphadenopathy is characterized by swelling and inflammation of one or more of the 20 to 40 axillary lymph nodes in each armpit. The swelling may involve one armpit, which is known as unilateral, or both armpits, known as bilateral. 2
What causes axillary lymphadenopathy?
There are many possible causes of axillary lymphadenopathy, including: Local infection, such as streptococcal and staphylococcal skin infections, or other infections that are localized to the arm, hand, chest, or shoulder Short-term inflammation, such as after receiving a shoulder or arm tattoo
What is axillary lymphadenopathy (armpit lump)?
Also called axillary adenopathy or armpit lump, axillary lymphadenopathy occurs when your underarm (axilla) lymph nodes grow larger in size. While this condition may be concerning, it’s usually attributed to a benign cause. It may also be temporary.