What is Hoffa fracture?
Hoffa’s fracture is a coronal-oriented fracture of the distal femur with the fracture line extending through the medial condyle, lateral condyle, or bicondylar region [1-3]. This fracture presents commonly as an isolated fracture and, in rare instances, it is associated with other injuries around the knee joint.
How to fix a Hoffa fracture?
Hoffa fracture with cruciate ligament, lateral collateral ligament, or meniscus injuries can be treated with arthroscopic surgery, which has the advantages of minimal invasion, less of an effect on blood supply, early postoperative return to functional exercise, and effective prevention of nonunion and joint stiffness.
Why is it called a Hoffa fracture?
This fracture pattern was initially described by Hoffa in 1904 1 hence the name for this fracture. The Hoffa fracture is an intra-articular fracture of the knee analogous to the capitellum fracture of the elbow 2.
Where is Hoffa’s fat pad?
Hoffa’s (infrapatellar) fat pad (HFP) is one of the knee fat pads interposed between the joint capsule and the synovium. Located posterior to patellar tendon and anterior to the capsule, the HFP is richly innervated and, therefore, one of the sources of anterior knee pain.
How do you find the surgical approach in a Hoffa fracture?
At present, CT scans with 2D and 3D reconstruction are the gold standard for investigation of Hoffa fractures. Scans can be used to identify the size of the fracture, the fracture plane, and comminution, three characteristics which are crucial for surgical treatment planning.
What is an insufficiency fracture of the knee?
Abstract. Subchondral insufficiency fractures are non-traumatic fractures that occur immediately below the cartilage of a joint. Although low bone density may be present concurrently, it is not the underlying cause of subchondral insufficiency fractures in the majority of patients.
How is a femoral stress fracture diagnosed?
The fulcrum test is used to aid the diagnosis of femoral shaft stress fractures. It is also useful in assessing the healing response. If the clinical test is positive during the physical examination, the diagnosis is confirmed by a bone scan or a Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan(MRI).
What is a femoral condyle defect?
Femoral Condyle Chondromalacia: Damage to the cartilage on the end of the bone is known as arthritis. This could also be described as “chondromalacia” which is basically a “kind” term for arthritis. Any damage to the cartilage in the body in effect is arthritis.
How is Hoffa’s disease diagnosed?
You need to undergo a Hoffa’s test. For this test, you will lie on your back and bend your knees. Then, you will slowly straighten your leg while your therapist/doctor presses your patella and contracts the quadriceps muscles in order to locate your pain.
What causes insufficiency fracture?
A stress or insufficiency fracture is a crack in a bone that occurs without a definite injury. It occurs as result of repetitive activity as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes a more traditional break or fracture. They are much more common in the lower extremity as these bones are considered weightbearing.
What is the difference between a stress fracture and an insufficiency fracture?
Stress fractures that occur in normal bone are often called fatigue fractures while those occurring in abnormal bone (e.g., osteomalacia, osteoporosis) are called insufficiency fractures .
What are 4 signs of a stress fracture?
The symptoms of a stress fracture can include:
- Pain, swelling or aching at the site of fracture.
- Tenderness or “pinpoint pain” when touched on the bone.
- Pain that begins after starting an activity and then resolves with rest.
- Pain that’s present throughout the activity and does not go away after the activity has ended.
What is the hop test for a stress fracture?
The single-leg hop test (A–D) is performed with the patient standing barefoot on a stable surface and instructing him or her to jump up and down several times. (C) Using both feet, he or she should jump several inches off the ground. Verbal cues, such as “take bunny hops,” are also helpful.
What is a Grade 4 cartilage defect?
Grade IV – The cartilage may wear away completely, leaving the underlying bone exposed in small or widespread areas. When the involved areas are large, pain usually becomes more severe, causing a limitation in activity.
What is a Hoffa fracture?
Hoffa Fractures. Partial articular, coronal plane fractures of the posterior part of femoral condyles are called Hoffa fractures. It was first described by Albert Hoffa; a German surgeon in 1904. They are rare and account for less than 1% of distal femoral fractures. In one study on supracondylar intercondylar fractures of distal femur,…
When is subvastus approach indicated in the treatment of medial Hoffa fracture?
In medial Hoffa fractures with posterior comminution, subvastus approach with arthrotomy of knee anterior and posterior to the medial collateral ligament may be necessary. Supine position on a radiolucent table.
What are the methods of fracture reduction and immobilization?
• Traction (skin or skeletal) may be used to effect fracture reduction and immobilization. 26. 2.Immobilization • Immobilization may be accomplished by external or internal fixation. • Methods of external fixation include bandages, casts, splints, continuous traction, and external fixators.
What is a fracture?
Definition • A fracture is a break in the continuity of bone. • Fracture is a break in any bone in the body. 3. Causes of fracture direct blows crushing forces sudden twisting motions extreme muscle contractions 4. Types of fracture a. Complete fracture : a break across the entire cross-section of the bone. b.